Monthly Archives: February 2016

Week 43: Go Fish

king-alaska-salmon

What are you going to fix for dinner tonight? Alaskan halibut in a lemon pepper sauce, shrimp pad Thai or steamed Maine lobsters with butter?

We’ve all heard the adage “There are plenty of fish in the sea.” Although it often refers to relationships, it’s also something to think about when we ponder the availability of seafood for the dinner table. The oceans are so vast, yet tens of thousands of species of fish and shellfish in our oceans and rivers are being adversely impacted by overfishing, bycatch (inadvertently catching unintended species), removal of prey and predators from complicated food chains, and habitat and ecosystem damage. Fish are also becoming contaminated in a variety of ways. Landfills, fertilizer and pesticide runoff from farms, waste discharge from factories all contaminate our waters. Mercury, for example, enters an aquatic ecosystem from power plant runoff. Rivers feed into the ocean and the contaminant finds its way into the marine ecosystem.

In the once rich fishing grounds of Japan overexploitation of Pacific bluefin tuna has reduced its population by as much as a third over the past two decades. In 2014 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shut down cod fishing, from Provincetown, Mass., up to the Canadian border, in an effort to reverse plummeting numbers of the fish in the Gulf of Maine. They also put restrictions on Atlantic salmon, sea scallops and a number of other species. In the Georges Bank fishing area of New England, there are catch limits on haddock and herring, the latter being bait for lobsters.

So, what can we do? How can we be mindful, health-conscious consumers of seafood? The answer lies with sustainable seafood, which is caught or farmed in ways that have minimal impact on ocean health and considers the long-term vitality of harvested species. Our best choices for fish have low levels of mercury (less than 216 parts per billion) and provide at least 250 milligrams of omega-3s per serving.

On the New Hampshire Seacoast a cooperative of fishermen and consumers have joined together to protect the ocean, sustain NH’s fishing industry, and support the local economy. Their Community Supported Fishery Program and Restaurant Supported Fishery Program provide weekly shares of delicious, fresh caught fish from local waters. Like community sponsored agriculture programs, participants pay a weekly or monthly amount and pick up their shares at designated locations. For more information, please go to http://www.nhcommunityseafood.com/.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association fisheries service supports using aquaculture to produce sustainable seafood. Aquaculture refers to fish or shellfish farming and has been practiced for more than a thousand years, but it is the last 30 years that we have seen an unprecedented expansion of fish farming, making it a substantial contributor to global food supply. Today, half of our seafood comes from aquaculture.

Two types of aquaculture exist. Marine aquaculture farms the fish species that live in the ocean and fresh water aquaculture is the fish species that live in freshwater. The aquaculture fisheries hatch and raise the fish until market size allowing the wild fish to repopulate without the threat of overfishing. In this way, we can repopulate and save the ocean ecosystem. The types of farmed seafood can vary from oysters, prawns to salmon. The environmental impact of aquaculture depends on the species, the location of the farm and how they are raised.

But there are potential environmental  concerns with aquaculture. Farmed carnivorous fish, such as salmon, require a food source which is high in fish-derived proteins. So, fish farms need to find a source of food which does not depend exclusively on wild fish being caught. The second is to ensure that any wild fish used as feed is caught in a sustainable manner. This is because removal of these species low in the food chain can have serious implications for fish stocks, the food chain and other wildlife including sea mammals and seabirds.

There are also problems which stem from fish farms being located in inappropriate areas. These include vulnerable habitats (both terrestrial and marine), essential fish habitats or areas with high concentrations of wild fish. Some of the problems can include organic waste accumulation on the seabed under sea pens – resulting in degraded water quality sea lice and other disease transfer; and altered food chains from escaped fish. Escaped farmed fish can interbreed with wild fish of the same species, resulting in genetic dilution (domestic farmed fish can have low genetic variation); they can spread disease; they can displace eggs of wild fish and they can put pressure on natural resources through competition with wild fish. For example, the Pacific oyster was introduced into UK waters in the 1960s for aquaculture purposes and it was seen as a more commercially viable alternative species to the native oyster. Since this time, the Pacific oyster has spread into the wild. Natural populations of the Pacific oyster can now be found in the Kent and Essex area resulting in reef formations which have displaced or modified some areas of the native oyster and biologically diverse marine environments.

A range of chemicals can be used in marine aquaculture operations such as disinfectants, anti-foulants and medicines (including vaccines) can be toxic to wildlife and can cause significant damage to the wider ecosystem, especially anti-foulants containing copper.

Center for Food Safety works to ensure and improve aquaculture oversight, furthering policy and cultural dialogue with regulatory agencies, consumers, chefs, grocers, fish retailers and legislators on the critical need to protect public health and the environment from industrial aquaculture. They advocate better alternatives to large scale open ocean aquaculture, including Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS). RAS, closed-looped and biosecure aquaculture operations which avoid many of the contamination potential inherent in factory fish farming and fulfill the need for clean, sustainable and healthy seafood supplements to our wild fisheries.

The organization Seafood Watch has an app you can download to your iPhone or Android phone that provides up-to-date seafood recommendations and locate restaurants and stores near you that serve ocean friendly seafood. Their recommendations are labeled “Best Choices,” “Good Alternatives,” or “Avoid.” Their scientists research government reports, journal articles and white papers and contact fishery and fish farm experts. After a thorough review of all the available data and information, they apply their sustainability criteria. Their website lists their approved Eco-Certification Program labels that you can look for when you purchase seafood. You can also search for seafood recommendations online at http://www.seafoodwatch.org/seafood-recommendations.

Some of the best seafood choices you can make now are Atlantic mackerel (wild caught in US and Canada), freshwater Coho salmon (farmed in US), Pacific sardines (wild caught), farmed shrimp (US), and fresh and canned salmon (wild caught from Alaska.)

So, what are you waiting for? Head for the seafood market!

Resources

www.centerforfoodsafety.org

www.foodandwaterwatch.org

www.kidsafeseafood.org

www.lobsterfrommaine.com

www.newhampshirecommunityseafood.org

www.seachoice.org

www.seafoodwatch.org

www.sustainableseafood.org

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Week 42: Tea

Empress Hotel

Many years ago we traveled by ferry from Anacortes, Washington to Victoria, British Columbia and enjoyed high tea at the Empress Hotel. It was one of the old grand hotels, now a Fairmont Hotel, that overlooked the waterfront with elegant décor and impeccable service. It was the first time I sampled a scone with strawberry jam and clotted cream as well as a crumpet (similar to an English muffin) drizzled with honey. Delicious! Afternoon tea is still a custom in the United Kingdom where, it is considered one of Britain’s cultural beverages.

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub that is native to Asia. Other than water, tea is the most widely consumed drink in the world

History

Drinking tea originated in China in 2737 BC and was initially used for medicinal purposes. Tea drinking spread to Korea, Japan and Vietnam during the Tang Dynasty (618–906 CE).The first recorded shipment of tea by a European nation was in 1607 when the Dutch East India Company transported a cargo of tea from Macao to Java, then two years later, the Dutch bought tea which was from Japan and shipped it to Europe. Tea was first sold in a coffee house in London in 1657, and Catherine of Braganza started the tea-drinking habit to the British court when she married King Charles II of England in 1662. Tea, however, was not widely consumed in Britain until the 18th century, and remained expensive until the latter part of that period. British drinkers preferred to add sugar and milk to black tea, and black tea overtook green tea in popularity in the 1720s. The popularity of tea in Britain also led a number of historical events. The tax on tea caused the Boston Tea Party that was one of the causes of the American Revolution. The British trade deficit caused by the demand for Chinese tea eventually resulted in the Opium Wars.

Cultivation

Tea plants are propagated from seed and cuttings. They thrive in a warmer climate, require acidic soil and need at least 50 inches of rainfall each year. Many high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 4,900 ft above sea level where the plants grow more slowly and develop better flavor. If left undisturbed, a tea plant will grow into a tree about 50 feet tall, but they are usually pruned to waist height to make it easier to pick the tea leaves. Also, the short plants bear more new shoots which provide new and tender leaves and increase the quality of the tea. Only the top 1–2 in of the mature plant are picked.

The largest producers of tea are the People’s Republic of China, India, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Turkey. In 2014, the U.S. imported 285 million pounds of tea, with an estimated retail value of approximately USD $10.8 billion. Over the last five years, total hot tea sales have increased more than 17% and are expected to double over the next five years. Today, India is the country that consumes the most tea.

Types of Tea

Tea is generally divided into categories based on how it is processed. At least six different types are produced:

White – Wilted and unoxidized.

Yellow – Unwilted and unoxidized, but allowed to yellow.

Green – Unwilted and unoxidized.

Oolong – Wilted, bruised, and partially oxidized.

Black – Wilted, sometimes crushed, and fully oxidized (called ‘red tea’ in China); black tea has the highest level of caffeine.

Post-fermented – Green tea that has been allowed to ferment/compost (‘black tea’ for the Chinese.)

The most common teas consumed are white, green, oolong, and black. Although herbal teas are also referred to as tea, most of them do not contain leaves from the tea plant, but are made by steeping herbs, fruits, seeds, or roots in hot water.

Preparation

Tea is sold loose or prepackaged in paper tea “bags.” The loose tea must be individually measured for use. Strainers, tea balls, tea presses, filtered teapots, and infusion bags prevent loose leaves from floating in the tea and over-brewing. In 1953 Tetley invented the tea bag and introduced it to Britain where it was a huge success. Instant tea was developed in the 1930s, with Nestle introducing the first commercial product in 1946.

Many of the active substances in black tea do not develop at temperatures lower than 194 °F. As a result, black tea in the West is usually steeped in water near its boiling point. In the western hemisphere, black teas are usually brewed for about four minutes and are usually not allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or more than about five minutes (a process known as brewing or mashing in Britain). In many regions of the world, however, actively boiling water is used and the tea is often stewed. In India, black tea is often boiled for fifteen minutes or longer to make masala chai.

Many flavorings are added to varieties of tea during processing. Among the best known are Chinese jasmine tea, with jasmine oil or flowers, the spices in Indian masala chai, and Earl Grey tea, which contains the lemony flavor of oil of bergamot. In eastern India, people also drink masala lemon tea contains hot tea with roasted cumin seed powder, lemon juice, black salt and sugar, which gives it a tangy, spicy taste. Adding a piece of ginger when brewing tea is a popular habit of Sri Lankans, who also use other types of spices such as cinnamon to sweeten the aroma.

In a traditional Japanese tea ceremony matcha green tea powder is ground from fine Japanese green tea leaves. Its pleasant taste and health benefits make it a favorite of many tea-lovers today. Organic matcha powder is whisked in a bowl with hot water to create a frothy, bright green, nourishing beverage. Once prepared, it is then immediately consumed in its entirety.

In the Kashmir region between India and Pakistan, noon chai, a pink, creamy tea with pistachios, almonds, cardamom, and sometimes cinnamon, is consumed at special occasions, weddings, and during the winter months when it is sold in many kiosks.

In the United States, 85% of tea is consumed is iced tea and is heavily sweetened with sugar and referred to “sweet tea” in the southeastern U.S.

Health Benefits

According to research presented at the 2007 Scientific Symposium on Tea and Health, theanine, an amino acid that is for the most part uniquely found in tea (green and black), may help prevent age-related memory decline. Additional studies have found that some teas may help with cancer, heart disease, diabetes, encourage weight loss, and lower cholesterol. Tea also appears to have antimicrobial qualities.

In fact, for well over a decade, researchers have been evaluating the link between weight loss and a chemical in green tea called EGCG, which actually does help promote weight loss. ECGC is a type of antioxidant that is found predominantly in but also in smaller amounts in red wine and chocolate. Most people know that antioxidants can help decrease the harmful effects of oxidative stress, a process associated with premature aging and cell breakdown. But this particular antioxidant does more. ECGC helps promote fat loss by increasing the rate at which the body burns fat and prevents the breakdown of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine that signals the brain that you’re full.

Resources

www.naturalnews.com

www.republicoftea.com

www.teausa.com

www.webmd.com